Chemical reactions and chemical reactors pdf

 

    Chemical Reactions and Chemical Reactors This page intentionally left blank Chemical Reactions and Chemical Reactors George W. Roberts North Carolina. Chemical Reactions and. Chemical Reactors. George W. Roberts. North Carolina State University. Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Introduction. • Reactor is the heart of Chemical Process. • A vessel designed to contain chemical reactions is called a reactor. • An industrial reactor is a complex.

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    Chemical Reactions And Chemical Reactors Pdf

    Chemical reaction engineering 1 Octave Levenspiel. - 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN X (cloth: alk. paper). 1. Chemical reactors. I. Title. TP Chemical Reactions, Chemical Reactors, Batch, CSTR, Plug Flow, Reactor Designing. Page 2. 2. Introduction. A Chemical reaction is a process that results in the conversion of ondieslinfuncton.ml, accessed in May 7. continuous stirred-tank reactor, and the plug-flow reactor. 1 Chemical reactions. Rate of reaction and dependence on temperature.

    Single-phase flow in a tubular reactor can be upward or downward. Two-phase flow can be co-current up-flow, counter-current liquid down, gas up or, most commonly, co-current down-flow. External furnaces can be rigid, split-tube heaters or be flexible mantle heaters. Applications: Tubular reactors are used in a variety of industries: Petroleum, Petrochemical, Polymer. Pharmaceutical, Waste Treatment, Specialty Chemical, Alternative Energy Tubular reactors are used in a variety of applications: Carbonylation, Dehydrogenation, Hydrogenation, Hydrocracking, Hydroformulation, Oxidative decomposition, Partial oxidation, Polymerization, Reforming It is often desirable to size a tubular reactor to be large enough to fit 8 to 10 catalyst particles across the diameter and be at least particle diameters long. The length to diameter ratio can be varied to study the effect of catalyst loading by equipping the reactor with spools to change this ratio. Moving bed reactor In manufacturing, the simulated moving bed SMB process is a highly engineered process for implementing chromatographic separation. It is used to separate one chemical compound or one class of chemical compounds from one or more other chemical compounds to provide significant quantities of the purified or enriched material at a lower cost than could be obtained using simple batch chromatography. It cannot provide any separation or purification that cannot be done by a simple column purification. The process is rather complicated. The single advantage which it brings to a chromatographic purification is that it allows the production of large quantities of highly purified material at a dramatically reduced cost. The cost reductions come about as a result of: the use of a smaller amount of chromatographic separation media stationary phase, a continuous and high rate of production, and decreased solvent and energy requirements. This improved economic performance is brought about by a valve-and-column arrangement that is used to lengthen the stationary phase indefinitely and allow very high solute loadings to the process.

    Chemical reactions occurring in a reactor may be exothermic , meaning giving off heat, or endothermic , meaning absorbing heat. A tank reactor may have a cooling or heating jacket or cooling or heating coils tubes wrapped around the outside of its vessel wall to cool down or heat up the contents, while tubular reactors can be designed like heat exchangers if the reaction is strongly exothermic , or like furnaces if the reaction is strongly endothermic.

    The simplest type of reactor is a batch reactor.

    Chemical reactor - Wikipedia

    Materials are loaded into a batch reactor, and the reaction proceeds with time. A batch reactor does not reach a steady state, and control of temperature, pressure and volume is often necessary. Many batch reactors therefore have ports for sensors and material input and output.

    Batch reactors are typically used in small-scale production and reactions with biological materials, such as in brewing, pulping, and production of enzymes. One example of a batch reactor is a pressure reactor. In a CSTR, one or more fluid reagents are introduced into a tank reactor which is typically stirred with an impeller to ensure proper mixing of the reagents while the reactor effluent is removed.

    Dividing the volume of the tank by the average volumetric flow rate through the tank gives the space time , or the time required to process one reactor volume of fluid. Using chemical kinetics , the reaction's expected percent completion can be calculated. Some important aspects of the CSTR:. If the residence time is times the mixing time, this approximation is considered valid for engineering purposes.

    The CISTR model is often used to simplify engineering calculations and can be used to describe research reactors.

    In practice it can only be approached, particularly in industrial size reactors in which the mixing time may be very large. A loop reactor is a hybrid type of catalytic reactor that physically resembles a tubular reactor, but operates like a CSTR.

    The reaction mixture is circulated in a loop of tube, surrounded by a jacket for cooling or heating, and there is a continuous flow of starting material in and product out.

    In a PFR, sometimes called continuous tubular reactor CTR , [10] one or more fluid reagents are pumped through a pipe or tube.

    The chemical reaction proceeds as the reagents travel through the PFR. In this type of reactor, the changing reaction rate creates a gradient with respect to distance traversed; at the inlet to the PFR the rate is very high, but as the concentrations of the reagents decrease and the concentration of the product s increases the reaction rate slows.

    Some important aspects of the PFR:. The rate of reaction decreases as the reactants are consumed until the point where the system reaches dynamic equilibrium no net reaction, or change in chemical species occurs. For this reason a separation process, such as distillation , often follows a chemical reactor in order to separate any remaining reagents or byproducts from the desired product. These reagents may sometimes be reused at the beginning of the process, such as in the Haber process.

    In some cases, very large reactors would be necessary to approach equilibrium, and chemical engineers may choose to separate the partially reacted mixture and recycle the leftover reactants. Under laminar flow conditions, the assumption of plug flow is highly inaccurate, as the fluid traveling through the center of the tube moves much faster than the fluid at the wall. The continuous oscillatory baffled reactor COBR achieves thorough mixing by the combination of fluid oscillation and orifice baffles, allowing plug flow to be approximated under laminar flow conditions.

    A semibatch reactor is operated with both continuous and batch inputs and outputs. A fermenter, for example, is loaded with a batch of medium and microbes which constantly produces carbon dioxide that must be removed continuously. Similarly, reacting a gas with a liquid is usually difficult, because a large volume of gas is required to react with an equal mass of liquid. To overcome this problem, a continuous feed of gas can be bubbled through a batch of a liquid.

    In general, in semibatch operation, one chemical reactant is loaded into the reactor and a second chemical is added slowly for instance, to prevent side reactions , or a product which results from a phase change is continuously removed, for example a gas formed by the reaction, a solid that precipitates out, or a hydrophobic product that forms in an aqueous solution.

    Although catalytic reactors are often implemented as plug flow reactors, their analysis requires more complicated treatment. The rate of a catalytic reaction is proportional to the amount of catalyst the reagents contact, as well as the concentration of the reactants.

    Chemical reactor

    With a solid phase catalyst and fluid phase reagents, this is proportional to the exposed area, efficiency of diffusion of reagents in and products out, and efficacy of mixing.

    Perfect mixing usually cannot be assumed. Furthermore, a catalytic reaction pathway often occurs in multiple steps with intermediates that are chemically bound to the catalyst; and as the chemical binding to the catalyst is also a chemical reaction, it may affect the kinetics. Catalytic reactions often display so-called falsified kinetics , when the apparent kinetics differ from the actual chemical kinetics due to physical transport effects.

    The behavior of the catalyst is also a consideration. Particularly in high-temperature petrochemical processes, catalysts are deactivated by processes such as sintering , coking , and poisoning.

    A common example of a catalytic reactor is the catalytic converter that processes toxic components of automobile exhausts. Various configurations are possible, see Heterogeneous catalytic reactor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Batch reactor. Continuous stirred-tank reactor. The Continuous Deterministic Process 2.

    Chemical Reactor Design and Technology

    Mathematical Models for Reactor Design 3. Systems of Chemical Reactions 3. The Multibed Adiabatic Reactor 3. The Tubular Reactor 3. The Batch Reactor Chapter 4. The Objective Function 4.

    Stoichiometric Objective Functions 4. Objective Functions with Operating Costs 4. An Example of Cost Estimation 4. The Sequence of Reactors of Equal Size 5. Parametric Studies 5. Denbigh's System of Reactions 5. General Problems with Sequences of Stirred Tanks 5.

    The Multibed Adiabatic Reactor 6. Interchanger Cooling with a Single Reaction 6.

    Extended Results of the Simple Model 6. Interchanger Cooling with Simultaneous Reactions 6. Cold Shot Cooling with a Single Reaction 6. Cold Shot Cooling with Simultaneous Reactions 6. Cooling by an Alien Cold Shot 6.

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